goal


goal
goal, goals
The end-results towards which an individual or collective action is directed. The term is commonplace in sociology, although its logical and explanatory status varies greatly, according to context and authorship. Numerous typologies exist, so that it is possible to distinguish between (for example) the informal goals of individuals, and the explicitly stated objectives of formal organizations ; between personal and superordinate goals (the former pertaining to individuals and the latter to a common aim which cannot be attained without a co-operative effort between individuals or groups); or between permissive and prescriptive goals (a distinction employed by Talcott Parsons). Most schools of thought in sociology assume that social action is (to a greater or lesser degree) goal-directed, although the terminology of goals is most frequently encountered in normative functionalist writings, where it is generally argued that the ends (goals) of social action are largely set by the institutionalized value-systems of societies (which define the roles and statuses that comprise the social system ). This same literature developed the related concepts of goal differentiation (distinctions between the specific goals that are morally approved for different individuals); goal generalization (the tendency for social systems to define expectations attached to roles in such a way that, whatever the wide variety of particular goals held by individuals within a role, these are channelled into a single kind of role-specific activity); and goal displacement (the process by which the particular means selected to achieve a goal become ends in themselves, as for example in the case of bureaucracies , where adherence to set procedures becomes a primary objective of officials rather than a means by which they can accomplish whatever tasks the organization has been set). See also action theory ; exchange theory ; teleology.

Dictionary of sociology. 2013.

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  • goal — goal …   Dictionnaire des rimes

  • goal — [ gol ] n. m. • 1882; mot angl. ♦ Anglic. 1 ♦ Vieilli But (football, rugby, polo, etc.). 2 ♦ (1894; de l angl. goal keeper) Gardien de but. ⇒ gardien. Des bons goals. ⊗ HOM. Gaule …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Goal — es la palabra inglesa para designar gol, y también arco, meta o portería. Además puede referirse a: Goal!, conocida también como Goal!: The Dream Begins o ¡Goool! una película dirigida por Danny Cannon. Goal! 2: Living the Dream..., segunda parte …   Wikipedia Español

  • goal — [ goul ] noun count *** 1. ) something that you hope to achieve: Our goal is to provide a good standard of medical care. goal of: the company s goal of employing as many women as men within five years set/establish a goal: You should set goals… …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • Goal! 2 — Goal 2 : La Consécration Goal 2 : La Consécration Titre original Goal II : Living the Dream Réalisation Jaume Collet Serra Scénario Mike Jefferies Adrian Butchart Terry Loan Musique Stephen Warbeck Montage Niven Howie Production… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • goal — W1S2 [gəul US goul] n [Date: 1500 1600; Origin: gol limit, boundary (1300 1400)] 1.) something that you hope to achieve in the future = ↑aim ▪ His ultimate goal was to set up his own business. achieve/reach a goal ▪ They achieved their goal of… …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • Goal — bezeichnet: im Schweizerischen und in Österreich ein Tor (Fußball) einen Film aus der Filmindustrie Bollywood Goal eine Fußballfilm Trilogie, siehe: Goal – Lebe deinen Traum Goal II – Der Traum ist real! Goal III – Das Finale Die… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Goal! — Goal !  Pour l’article homonyme, voir Goal.  Goal ![1] est un film anglo américain de Danny Cannon sorti en 2005. Il s agit du premier volet d une trilogie racontant l ascension d un jeune joueur. Fiche technique Titre… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Goal — Goal, n. [F. gaule pole, Prov. F. waule, of German origin; cf. Fries. walu staff, stick, rod, Goth. walus, Icel. v[ o]lr a round stick; prob. akin to E. wale.] [1913 Webster] 1. The mark set to bound a race, and to or around which the… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Goal — 〈[ goʊl] n. 15; Sp.〉 Tor, Treffer [engl., „Ziel, Grenzmal“] * * * Goal [go:l ], das; s, s [engl. goal = Tor, eigtl. = Ziel, Endpunkt, H. u.] (österr., schweiz., sonst veraltet): Tor, Treffer (z. B. beim Fußballspiel). * * * Goal   [goːl; englisch …   Universal-Lexikon